For a budding colony with access to Federation tech, resources are measured by elemental availability:
Hydrogen: Mined from planetary ice deposits and comets in the form of water, or harvested from gas giants via orbital facilities. Hydrogen is the primary fuel for fusion-based power plants, as well as impulse fuel for ion drives that propel federation craft.
Carbon: Carbon is harvested from hydrocarbon deposits on planets, or mined from carbon bearing asteroids. Biological waste generated by people can also be recycled into usable elemental carbon. Carbon is used primarily for the formation of Plasticrete, the primary building material.
Silicon: Silicon is mined from silicon bearing asteroids and silicate deposits on planets. Desert planets tend to be highly silicon rich. This material is used for the production of electronics and the formation of Plasticrete.
Metal: Metals are mined from metallic asteroids and ore deposits. Metals are highly important for the production of late-stage goods, often used for planetary export.
Elemental resources that are recycled are not tracked.